In 1986, a concerned environmental group encouraged the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to list the the Northern Spotted Owl as an endangered species. After much debate, the U.S. government declared the spotted owl and endangered species. This would effectively limit the timber industry's scope for exploitation in old growth forests. Under the provision, timber companies are required to leave a minimum of 40% of the forest remaining within a 1.3 mile radius of any spotted owl nest or activity site. The timber industry was outraged by this, claiming they would lose 30,000 jobs of 168,000 jobs (refer to Time cover from 1990). In reality, the lumber trade had been decline since after WW2. Automation and over-exploitation of the forest are the main factors behind this loss of jobs. Also critical is the loss of jobs from the profitable export of raw logs to places like Japan instead of processing of the logs here. The picture above depicts slogans used by loggers and logger supporters on hats, bumper stickers, etc.